This section describes ISM's ultrasonic liquid processors. Please follow the above links for detailed information on each processor type. Different equipment configurations are illustrated, and links to pages describing the individual ultrasonic devices comprising each system are provided.
Industrial Sonomechanics, LLC, offers laboratory, bench and industrial-scale ultrasonic liquid processors (also known as ultrasonic homogenizers, sonochemical reactors, ultrasonic emulsifiers, ultrasonic mixers, etc.) able to provide very high ultrasonic amplitudes and cavitation intensities. Application examples include the production of nanoemulsions, nanocrystals and wax nanoparticles for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, ink, paint, coating, wood treatment, metalworking, nanocomposite, pesticide, and fuel industries, extraction of oil from algae, production of biofuels, crude oil desulphurization, degassing, cell disruption, polymer and epoxy processing, and more.
LSP-500 Laboratory-Scale Processor
The LSP-500 laboratory ultrasonic liquid processor is designed for small scale process testing and optimization. It outputs up to 500 W of acoustic power into the processed liquids and operates at the frequency of approximately 20 kHz. The processor is supplied with an air-cooled transducer and a CH-type ultrasonic horn. Pulsed processing is possible, where ON and OFF pulse duration can be set independently from 1 second to 59 seconds. The generator's LCD display features programmable operation allowing the user to set processing parameters, such as the ultrasonic amplitude, processing time and pulse ON/OFF times. The display also allows monitoring the output power, elapsed processing time and accumulated energy delivered to the sample. Constant ultrasonic vibration amplitude is always maintained, regardless of the power draw, which is automatically adjusted to compensate for variable loading conditions. The amplitude level can be adjusted from 20 to 100 %. The processor is designed to be implemented in the batch processing mode. Batch volumes ranging from 1 ml to 250 ml can be treated, depending on the output diameter of the incorporated CH-type ultrasonic horn, which can range from 3.2 mm to 19.1 mm. All CH-type horns can provide very high ultrasonic amplitudes, well over 100 microns.
The LSP-500 processor is most commonly used to carry out small-scale batch testing and optimization with the intention to scale up once feasibility has been demonstrated. With this in mind, ISM also offers bench and industrial-scale ultrasonic liquid processors (see below) which permit implementing the processes in pilot or commercial production environments and feature continuous (24/7) flow-through treatment capabilities.
BSP-1200 Bench-Scale Processor
The BSP-1200 bench-scale ultrasonic liquid processor is designed for batch and flow-through process investigations and pilot-scale production. The processor outputs up to 1200 W of acoustic power into a working liquid and operates at the frequency of approximately 20 kHz. BSP-1200 is supplied with a sealed water-cooled transducer, SWCT-20, which is completely sealed to the outside environment and can be used under high-humidity conditions as well as for processing flammable liquids, such as fuels and organic solvents. Barbell horns used in this processor have output tip diameters of 32 - 35 mm and can provide stable operation at output amplitudes up to 100 microns. This gives investigators a wide range of experimental conditions to optimize parameters for even the most challenging ultrasonic processes in batch or continuous flow-through processing modes.
Productivity rates provided by the BSP-1200 processor are highly dependent on the nature of each process and range from about 1 L/h for challenging tasks (e.g., top-down nanocrystallization of active pharmaceutical compounds) to over 1,000 L/h for fast processes (e.g., waste-water purification, biodiesel production).
ISP-3000 Industrial-Scale Processor
The ISP-3000 industrial-scale ultrasonic liquid processor is designed for high-volume commercial production. The processor outputs up to 3000 W of acoustic power into a working liquid and operates at the frequency of approximately 20 kHz. ISP-3000 is supplied with a sealed water-cooled transducer, SWCT-20, which is completely sealed to the outside environment and can be used under high-humidity conditions as well as for processing flammable liquids, such as fuels and organic solvents. Barbell horns incorporated in the ISP-3000 ultrasonic processor have large output tip diameters (typically 45 - 50 mm for HBH and 50 - 60 mm for FBH-type horns) and deliver extremely high vibration amplitudes - up to 100 microns. For industrial-scale ultrasonic processors, these levels of vibration amplitudes are unprecedented: all competing industrial ultrasonic systems, irrespective of their specified power, are restricted to vibration amplitudes below 25 microns. Batch and continuous flow-through processing modes are possible, the latter being more common.
Productivity rates provided by the ISP-3000 processor are highly dependent on the nature of each process and range from about 5 L/h for challenging tasks (e.g., top-down nanocrystallization of active pharmaceutical compounds) to over 5,000 L/h for fast processes (e.g., waste-water purification, biodiesel production).
ISM's bench and industrial-scale ultrasonic processors are based on Barbell Horn Ultrasonic Technology (BHUT), which makes it possible to implement high-amplitude ultrasound on any scale, form laboratory to industrial, guaranteeing reproducible and predictable results. When utilized in the continuous production mode, the processors incorporate patented flow-through reactor chambers (flow cells) and provide very uniform ultrasonic treatment with no bypass.
Substantial ultrasonic intensity and high ultrasonic vibration amplitudes are required for most processing applications. Commonly, a process is first tested on a laboratory scale to prove feasibility and establish some of the required ultrasonic exposure parameters. After this phase is complete, the process is transferred to a pilot (bench) scale for flow-through pre-production optimization and then to an industrial scale for continuous production. During these scale-up steps, it is essential to make sure that all local exposure conditions (ultrasonic amplitude, cavitation intensity, time spent in the active cavitation zone, etc.) stay the same. If this condition is met, the quality of the final product remains at the optimized level, while the productivity is increased by a predictable "scale-up factor". The productivity increase results from the fact that laboratory, bench and industrial-scale ultrasonic processors incorporate progressively larger ultrasonic horns, able to generate progressively larger high-intenisty cavitation zones and, therefore, to process more material per unit of time. This is called "direct scalability". It is important to point out that increasing the power of an ultrasonic processor alone does not result in direct scalability, since it may be (and frequently is) accompanied by a reduction in the ultrasonic amplitude and cavitation intensity. During direct scale-up, all processing conditions must be maintained, while the power rating of the equipment is increased in order to enable the operation of a larger ultrasonic horn.